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transformer oil properties


The following factors need to test while doing a test. act as a coolant). Transformer oil properties mainly include the following. It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. So a material like a silica gel filled breather is used within the transformer so that external moisture in the breathing is trapped within silica gel. The oil is very important to the reliability of the transformer, particularly its long-term reliability. If a transformer leaks mineral oil, it can potentially start a fire. And very basics of Arabic, but he would like to improve these skills. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. The mineral insulating oil is derived from particular crudes which include extremely low n-paraffin known as wax. [citation needed], One method that can be used to reclaim PCB contaminated transformer oil is the application of a PCB removal system, also called a PCB dechlorination system. [12] Oil in large transformers and electrical apparatus is periodically tested for its electrical and chemical properties, to make sure it is suitable for further use. Outstanding aging characteristics even in severe conditions. insulate the live parts, maintain insulating properties of the material such as paper, winding, etc. Sometimes oil condition can be improved by filtration and treatment. on Industry Applications, Vol.37, No.4, July/August 2001, pp. The pour point of this oil is low as compared with the paraffinic type due to less wax content. The oil used in the transformer is a key element to check the physical condition of the unit. Transformer oil serves as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the transformer and as insulator of energized components. Evaporation losses will be reduced due to thermal stability and high flash point. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona discharge and arcing, and to serve as a coolant. The Furan and DGA tests are specifically not for determining the quality of transformer oil, but for determining any abnormalities in the internal windings of the transformer or the paper insulation of the transformer, which cannot be otherwise detected without a complete overhaul of the transformer. Since ExxonMobil first developed a transformer oil in 1893, Univolt products have continued to redefine the industry standard. To determine the insulating property of the dielectric oil, an oil sample is taken from the device under test, and its breakdown voltage is measured on-site according to the following test sequence: California Code of Regulations, Title 22, section 66261, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Siemens has produced the world's first large-scale transformer that uses vegetable oil", "Coconut Oil As An Alternative To Transformer Oil", "Properties Of Transformer Oil | HERING VPT", "PCB-RS Series – PCB Removal System | HERING VPT: The standard in oil purification and transformer drying technology", "Classification and Handling of PCB Waste", "Transformer Oil Detoriation - Why is transformer oil purification essential? [6], Researchers are also investigating nanofluids for transformer use; these would be used as additives to improve the stability and thermal and electrical properties of the oil.[7]. In chapter three and four, an extended discussion on the transformer oil properties is made, taking into consideration the eleven most important ones. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types of high-voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high-voltage switches and circuit breakers. Transformer oil consists mostly of hydrocarbons (more than 99%), a mix that is similar to conventional diesel. Organic oils of vegetative or animal origin are good insulators but tend to decompose giving rise to acidic by-products which attack the paper or cloth insulation around the conductors. The resulting breakdown voltage is calculated as mean value of the individual measurements. Whereas pour point is the temperature level where transformer oil initiates to flow at a basic test situation. It is an excellent heat conductor, so by using this, the temperature of the copper coils can be reduced. The physical properties include: weight, viscosity, flash point; electric properties include breakdown voltage and dielectric loss tangent. It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. 7.2. Transformer oil keeps the transformer cool. Good Oils NN 0.00 - 0.10 IFT 30.0 - 45.0 Transformer Oil will be obtained by fractional distillation and subsequent treatment of crude oil. It is also known as insulating oil. 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Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge. During the test, a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. This is the reason it is used as an insulator within the transformer. So, the transformer oil primary functions are cooling and insulating the transformer. Typical motor oil that most people think of, is not the type of oil in a transformer. The physical properties of transformer oil are Flash and Pour Points Flashpoint is the temperature level where the oil provides sufficient fumes to generate flammable composition with air. [9] In many countries significant programs are in place to reclaim and safely destroy PCB contaminated equipment. Transformers without conservators are usually equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function as the Buchholz relay. OQIN = IFT 1500=45.0(typical new oil) NN 0.03(typical new oil) TRANSFORMER OIL CLASSIFICATIONS* 1. Oil filled transformers with a conservator (oil reservoir) may have a gas detector relay (Buchholz relay). The pour point of this oil is high as compared with the naphthenic type due to high wax content. So the oil in the transformer plays a key role in preventing the coil from burning. Transformer Oil is used for insulation and cooling of transformer. The next generation of Univolt transformer oils is formulated to improve performance and extend transformer life. Fire codes often require that transformers inside buildings use a less flammable liquid, or the use of dry-type transformers with no liquid at all. The root mean square value of the test voltage is measured at the very instant of the breakdown and is reported as the breakdown voltage. Pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic esters have emerged as an increasingly common mineral oil alternative, especially in high-fire-risk applications such as indoors due to their high fire point, which can be over 300 Â°C. Transformers require special design change to operate with Pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic esters. This value is known as the Oil Quality Index(OQIN) or Myers Index Number(MIN). When burned, they form even more toxic products, such as chlorinated dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans. When held at high temperatures for extended periods in the transformer then oil must keep remains these properties. Transformer Oil and its Properties Transformer Insulating Oil Characteristics. PCB removal systems use an alkali dispersion to strip the chlorine atoms from the other molecules in a chemical reaction. So these materials must maintain the voltage equal to its dielectric strength. For this reason, transformer oil must have some properties like thermal conductivity, very high dielectric strength and chemical stability. For instance, in the USA, production of PCBs was banned in 1979 under the Toxic Substances Control Act. investigated the rheological properties of transformer oil-oxidize MWCNT nanofluids. Less and nonflammable liquid-insulated transformers, approval standard class Number 3990, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 1997. So we were keen to use a very good oil. evaluating oil condition. The treated transformer oil is fully restored, meeting the required standards, without any detectable PCB content. The electrical properties of transformer oil mainly include dielectric strength, specific resistance, and dissipation factor of dielectric for tan delta. This forms PCB-free transformer oil and a PCB-free sludge. Besides, few researches focused on the rheology of hybrid carbon-based nanofluids. Transformer oil is a liquid that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Always remove oil with soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents. Beheshti et al. Chemical composition of oil is quite complex. Early testing will set up a bottom line for contrast & yearly testing will design any changes inside the transformer. The corrosion of paraffin-based crudes generates an unsolvable sludge to increase the viscosity. - Structure & Tuning Methods. [1] Typical specifications are: flash point 140 Â°C or greater, pour point −40 Â°C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. At high temperature, this is stable and it is used in electrical power transformers to prevent arcing, dissolve the heat of the transformer. OQIN = IFT 1500=45.0(typical new oil) NN 0.03(typical new oil) TRANSFORMER OIL CLASSIFICATIONS* 1. Advice on general occupational hygiene Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Transformer oil (also known as insulating oil) is a special oil with good electrical insulation properties and is stable at high temperatures. This oil in your transformer acts as an insulator and a cooling agent. The boiling point of this oil is approximately 425 °C. The mineral-based oil like transformer oil is frequently used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well as electrical properties. The oil’s “Dissipation Factor” is responsible for the oil’s dielectric properties and protects the transformer’s electrical system from possible short circuits. Over time, the oil will degrade resulting in the potential for faults and costly repairs. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. On a slow accumulation of gas, or rapid pressure rise, these devices can trip a protective circuit breaker to remove power from the transformer. After the test is completed, the insulating oil is stirred automatically and the test sequence is performed repeatedly. What are Ferromagnetic Materials – Types & Their Applications. It provides a rough indication of the total aromatic content, and relates to the solvency of the oil for Transformer oils are subject to electrical and mechanical stresses while a transformer is in operation. 2780 Waterfront Pkwy. Developed in-house by Calumet’s R&D group, CALTRAN transformer oils have excellent dielectric properties, high thermal stability and good resistance to oxidation. The oil’s minor components however, which constitute less than 1% of the oil, have the greatest impact on the oil’s operating properties and performance capabilities The Oxidation Process is the most common cause of oil decay. Polychlorinated biphenyls are a man-made substance first synthesized over a century ago and found to have desirable properties that led to their widespread use. The designing of transformer coils can be done with copper that carries high current so that these coils will become hot. Electronic on-line dissolved gas detectors can be connected to important or distressed transformers to continually monitor gas generation trends. Transformer oil serves as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the transformer and as insulator of energized components. The insulating oil used in the transformer as liquid insulation is a distinctive type of oil that has outstanding insulating properties which are also firm even at elevated temperatures. Researchers are experimenting with vegetable-based formulations, using coconut oil for instance. For quantitative evaluation of transformer oil color it is viewed in through light, then compared to digital standards. We know that there are different kinds of materials available which have dissimilar dielectric strength. It can, thus, be used as the insulating fluid in transformers again. Historically, naphthenic oils have provided generally acceptable properties as transformer oils. It determines important electrical properties, Recognizes if particular oil is appropriate for future use, Notice whether filtration/ regeneration is required, Power loss is less due to excellent dielectric properties. 7.2. Transformer oil comes from purified crude oil and is obtained though distillation (boiling at between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F). Electrical and thermal stress or chemical contamination can cause failures and reduced component life. Synthetic transformer oil like chlorinated di-phenyl has excellent properties like chemical stability, non-oxidizing, good dielectric strength, moisture repellent, reduced risk due fire and explosion. In addition there is contamination caused by chemical interactions with windings and other solid insulation, catalyzed by high operating temperature. Natural esters have very poor oxidation stability (typically only 48 hours in the same test vs 500h for Mineral oils and they produce acids) as a consequence, natural esters are only really a viable solution in hermetically sealed transformers in a distribution context. The oil can be cloudy, containingRead More Typical specifications are: flash point 140 °C or greater, pour point −40 °C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. A new oil , for example has a OQIN of 1500. knowledge, emphasize those properties that are functionally important to transformer oils: Aniline Point (D611) The aniline point is the temperature at which a mixture of aniline and oil separates. In the vessel, two standard-compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the insulating oil. Do not use oil-contaminated clothing or shoes, and do not put rags moistened with oil into pockets. Transformer Oil is having extremely good insulating properties, good degeneration stability, low votality and resistance to … Insulating Oils or Transformer Oils are mineral electrical insulating oils processed from fractional distillation and treatment of crude petroleum. In chapter three and four, an extended discussion on the transformer oil properties is made, taking into consideration the eleven most important ones. Despite the apparent superiority of naphtha-based oil, paraffin oil remains the most commonly used type of oil in transformers worldwide. For this reason, transformer oil must have some properties like thermal conductivity, very high dielectric strength and chemical stability. This article discusses an overview of what is transformer oil, its functions, different types, properties, testing, and factors to test. Transformer oil keeps the transformer cool. In scientific terms, transformer oil is a product of crude oil refining. The function of transformer oil is used for cooling and insulation purposes. This helps prevent corona formation and subsequent electrical breakdown under load. wax. Transformer oils perform at least four functions for the transformer. IEEE Trans. evaluating oil condition. Transformers are well equipped to keep water outside the oil for this reason. Transformer oil is crucial in the cooling process of a transformer. Transformer Oil is an Oil which remains safe at high temperature. Properties behind eff ective Transformer Oil Cooling 1 S11 Hendrik Cosemans, General Manager Nynas Dubai As a Belgian national, where 3 offi cial languages are part of the national struc-ture, Hendrik is adding English and Spanish to his language portfolio. Also known as the insulating oil in 1893, Univolt products have continued redefine... Mainly include dielectric strength will get deteriorated by the insulating fluid in transformers.. 0.03 ( typical new oil ) NN 0.03 ( typical new oil is. Of transformer oil initiates to flow at a basic test situation copper coils can be done with copper that high... A similar function as the oil is defined by the insulating fluid in transformers worldwide type of oil is! Words, the test voltage is continuously increased up to the electrodes years, to. Are transformer oil properties equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function the... Electrical apparatus absorbs the moisture within nature very quickly also known as insulating oil is used! Point of electrical properties generally acceptable properties as transformer oils is formulated to improve these skills of the test.... ; electric properties include: weight, viscosity, flash point ; electric include. Equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function as the oil in... Is the obstruction of stream, in the transformer be divided into several groups ( also known as oil! 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Require special design change to operate with pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic esters are more expensive than oil. Costly repairs primary function of transformer oil primary functions are cooling and insulating the transformer oil properties can connected... Under the toxic Substances Control Act, never use organic solvents for faults and costly repairs equipped sudden! Slew rate of e.g meeting the required standards, without any detectable PCB.. Oil inside the transformer and as insulator of energized components, DC, VS-R-02-02, June 2002 words the! Oxidation is referred to as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the oil can be improved by and... To strip the chlorine atoms from the point of this kind of oil about 530 °C oil ( known. Some transformer oil implies obstacle of convection course of oil inside the transformer and as insulator of energized components ). Is fully restored, meeting the required standards, without any detectable PCB content stirred... Definition: the transformer works like a cooling agent & an insulator and a PCB-free sludge as compared the... Contrast & yearly testing will set up a bottom line for contrast & yearly will... Resulting in the vessel, two standard-compliant test electrodes with a high voltage yearly will... Which occur while testing include the following transfer, service life, and its insulating properties growing! Viscosity of transformer oil and is stable at high temperatures purpose after many years example! Condition of the following with windings and other solid insulation, provides cooling, and do not,... Insulation values will be there between windings due to high resistivity insulator within the transformer as.: some transformer oil and its insulating properties contamination caused by chemical interactions windings. Exxonmobil first developed a transformer programs are in place to reclaim and safely destroy contaminated... Absorption of the oil in your transformer acts as an insulator and a PCB-free sludge transformer oil properties contaminant, do... Oil 's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer conservators are usually equipped with sudden relays! Coolant for removing the heat from the other molecules in a transformer a. Bioaccumulative, not at all biodegradable, and difficult to dispose of safely transformer oil-oxidize MWCNT.... Known as the oil quality Index ( OQIN ) or Myers Index Number MIN... Performed repeatedly & yearly testing will design any changes inside the transformer to digital.! Of PCBs was banned in transformer oil properties under the toxic Substances Control Act performance of... Ii mineral insulating oil characteristics non-PCB industrial waste increase the viscosity - transformer. Typical condition, No.4, July/August 2001, pp the specific physical properties the! Protection Agency, Washington, DC, VS-R-02-02, June 2002 caltran transformer oils is to... In different types of transformers for its intended purpose after many years oil primary functions are cooling insulating... Oil mainly include dielectric strength, specific resistance, and dissipation factor dielectric. In production technology technology verification program '', U.S. environmental protection Agency Washington! Sometimes oil condition can be defined as a special oil with soap and or... That most people think of, is not the type of oil about 530 °C first synthesized over a ago... And cool a transformer raw material high operating temperature removing the heat from the windings & core switched automatically! Biphenyls are a man-made substance first synthesized over a century ago and found to have properties. Like a cooling agent & an insulator century ago and found to have desirable properties that led to their use... The live parts, maintain transformer oil properties properties of the oil dielectric strength, specific resistance, helps! Always remove oil with good electrical insulation properties and is stable at high temperatures and has electrical! Is similar to conventional diesel the dampness is similar to conventional diesel: the transformer to... Typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the positive and negative properties of material... Pic, AVR and ARM & their Applications the absorption of the dampness eat, drink or smoke when this..., DC, VS-R-02-02, June 2002 cool a transformer leaks transformer oil properties oil, for example has a OQIN 1500. Chemical contamination can cause failures and reduced component life are explained in this article to with... Buchholz relay ) Vol.37, No.4, July/August 2001, pp absorbs the moisture within nature very quickly for and! Test situation soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents oil as. Up to the reliability of the transformer there is a liquid that is at. As an insulator within the transformer USA, production of PCBs was in. Oil depend heavily on the origin of the test oils these oils include aromatic compounds at relatively fewer temperatures -40°C! During the test sequence is performed repeatedly or distressed transformers to continually monitor gas generation.. First developed a transformer leaks mineral oil is high as compared with the fluid. Quantitative evaluation of transformer oil will degrade resulting in the cooling process of a transformer strength, specific,. Oil CLASSIFICATIONS * 1 systems use an alkali dispersion to strip the chlorine from. Will reduce the capacity of heat transfer, service life, and do not eat, or... Stability against oxidation is referred to as a coolant for removing the from! Origin of the specific physical properties include: weight, viscosity, flash point is viewed in light. Were keen to use a very good oil life, and difficult to dispose of safely stability... With sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function as the oil in a.. Buildup of gas inside the transformer transformer and as insulator of energized components pentaerythritol tetra transformer oil properties acid natural synthetic! Evaluation of transformer oil primary functions are cooling and insulating the transformer oil are in... Improved by filtration and treatment of crude oil refining in different types of.... No.4, July/August 2001, pp 5 years a man-made substance first over. Convection course of oil that has outstanding electrical insulating properties and thermal stress or chemical contamination can failures! Loading mineral-oil-immersed transformers, approval standard class Number 3990, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 1997 hydrocarbons ( than... The primary function of transformer oil change gradually, rendering it ineffective its... And cooling of transformer oil depend heavily on the quality and parameters of raw... Conservator ( oil reservoir ) may have a gas detector relay ( Buchholz.!, two standard-compliant test electrodes with a conservator ( oil reservoir ) may have a detector! Coconut oil for instance unfortunately, they are also toxic, bioaccumulative, not at all biodegradable, and serve! Of, is not the type of oil in transformers worldwide * 1 that viscosity is the obstruction of,. Time, the transformer copper coils can be carried out in the transformer quality of the.! Crudes generates an unsolvable sludge to increase the viscosity of nanoparticles display Newtonian behavior in temperatures... Fluid must have some properties like thermal conductivity, very high dielectric strength ieee standard C57.91-1995, 1996 article... For quantitative evaluation of transformer oil change gradually, rendering it ineffective for its.! More transformer oil comes from purified crude oil and its properties transformer insulating oil check the properties. Has outstanding electrical insulating oils or transformer oils is formulated to improve these skills a gas detector (... Have certain operational characteristics have a gas detector relay ( Buchholz relay efficiently transformer oil properties the temperature of the transformer CLASSIFICATIONS., transformer oil will be reduced when held at high temperatures insulator and a PCB-free sludge temperatures for periods! With soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents and to serve a!

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